-Cheng J. and Howlett, P. (1992) "Application of Critical Velocities to the minimisation of fFuel consumption in the control of trains", Automatica, vol 28,pp165-169.
-Howlett, P., Milroy I. and Pudney, P. (1994), "Energy – Efficient Train Control", Control Eng. Practice, Vol.2, No. 2.
-Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R.(1995) "Particle swarm optimization", IEEE Conference.
-Khanbaghi, M. and Malhame, R.P. (1994) "Reducing travel energy costs for a subway train via fuzzy logic controls", Intelligent Control Symposium.
-Qunzhan, L. and Bing, T. (2009) "Energy saving train control for urban railway train with multi-population genetic algorithm ", Information Technology and Applications, IFITA '09 Conference.
-Wei, L.,Qunzhan, L. and Bing, T. (2009), "Energy saving train control for urban railway train with multi-population genetic algorithm", International Forum on Information Technology and Applications.
-Wai, R. J., Huang, Y.C. and Chen, Y. C. (2012) " Design of intelligent long-term load forecasting with fuzzy neural network and particle swarm optimization", Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), Conference.