توسعه یک مدل مسیریابی برای مدیریت مناسب ناوگان جمع‌آوری پسماند جامد شهری مبتنی بر Web-based GIS

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار، گروه سنجش ا زدور GIS. دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار دانشگاه ایالت کارولینای شمالی آمریکا

چکیده

اختصاص بیشترین سهم هزینه‌های مدیریت پسماند به بخش جمع‌آوری ازیک سو و ضرورت بهره‌وری عملیاتی این سیستم باکاهش زمان‌های صرف شده از سوی دیگر بهینه‌سازی سیستم جمع‌آوری و حمل را به‌صورت یک اصل در طراحی و مدیریت پسماند مطرح می‌سازد. ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ازآن‌جهت ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ جمع‌آوری می‌تواند ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ قابل‌ملاحظه‌ای ﺩﺭ صرفه‌جویی هزینه‌های ﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. لذا مقاله حاضر باهدف توسعه یک سامانه مدیریتی برای ناوگان جمع­آوری و حمل­ونقل مدلی مناسب برای مسیریابی وسایل نقلیه (کامیون) ارائه می‌دهد بگونه ای که هم مسیر مناسب­ برای هر کامیون جمع­آوری پسماند و هم برنامه زمانی، مبدأ، مقصد و مسیر حرکت­ کامیون­ها مشخص شود. نوآوری اصلی این مقاله، به‌کارگیری سامانه اطلاعات مکانی تحت وب و توسعه مسیریابی بهینه وسایل جمع‌آوری پسماند با تأکید بر پارامترها و ویژگی‌های مکانی می‌باشد. برای به دست آوردن جواب مناسب از مساله مسیریابی وسایل نقلیه با ظرفیت محدود جمع­آوری پسماند استفاده شد بگونه ای که هم بتواند زمان سفر را کمینه کند و هم پارامترهای 1- حداکثر کل زمان سفر مجاز و2- حداکثر مسافت طی شده مجاز وسایل نقلیه به‌عنوان محدودیت­های مساله نیز رعایت شود. به‌منظور حل این مساله ابتدا داده های میزان حجم پسماند هر سطل زباله، مقدار زمان لازم برای تخلیه کردن هر سطل زباله، جهت حرکت شبکه معابر، ساعات شروع بکار وسایل نقلیه، محدودیت سفر در سرعت مجاز، امپدانس زمان و امپدانس فاصله هر یال، بر روی شبکه معابر در فرمت یک مجموعه داده به عنوان ورودی مدل پیشنهادی ساخته می شود. در ادامه مدل اجرا شده که برای هر کامیون یک مسیر پیشنهاد و در بستر وب این نتایج منتشر  شده است. بررسی نتایج حاصل نشان می­دهد که رویکرد پیشنهادی  14% زمان، 24% مسافت طی شده و 35% مصرف سوخت را در مقایسه با وضعیت موجود ناوگان کاهش می‌دهد. همچنین میزان رضایت­مندی کاربران از سامانه Web GIS موردبررسی قرار گرفت که نتایج حاکی از رضایت 89 درصدی کاربران می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development of a Routing Model for Managing of Web-Based GIS Municipal Solid Waste Fleet

نویسندگان [English]

  • Keyvan Baghei 1
  • Najmeh Neysani Samany 2
  • Mohamad Reza Jelokhani Niaraki 2
  • Ara Toomanian 3
  • Leila Hajibabai 4
1 PhD student , Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor
3 Associate Professor, Department of Surveying, Tehran University
4 Assistant Professor, North Carolina State University
چکیده [English]

Allocating the largest share of waste management costs to the collection sector on the one hand, and the necessity for operational efficiency of this system by reducing the spent time on the other hand, highlights the importance of optimization of waste collection and transport system as a principle in waste design and management. The importance of this issue is that even little improvement in the collection system could have a considerable impact on reducing total costs. Therefore, in order to develop a management system for (fleet collection and transportation), this paper presents an appropriate model for vehicles (truck) routing that determines the appropriate truck route, timetable, starting point, destination, and routes of each truck. The main innovation of this paper is the application of WebGIS and the development of optimal routing for waste collection vehicles with an emphasis on spatial parameters and features. To obtain an appropriate answer, routing vehicles with limited waste collection capacity were used in order to minimize the travel time and consider limiting parameters including, 1- maximum total allowable travel time and 2 – maximum allowable covered distance of vehicles. With the aim of optimal management of waste collection, features such as the amount of waste in each trash bin, the amount of time required to discharge each trash bin, the direction of network traffic, vehicle operating hours, road speed limits, time impedance and distance impedance of each edge were considered. The results show that in comparison to the current fleet, the proposed approach reduces travel time, distance, and fuel consumption by 14%, 24%, and 35%, respectively. User satisfaction with the WebGIS was also assessed indicating that 89% of the users are satisfied with this system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Web-based GIS ، WCCVRP، MSW
  • Vehicle capacity
  • travel time
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