مسأله مکان یابی مقاوم سازی بیمارستان ها با منابع محدود در شرایط بحران و ازکارافتادگی تسهیلات

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

چکیده

امروزه کاهش همزمان هزینه­های مکان­یابی و نیز هزینه­های حمل و نقل در استقرار امکانات و تسهیلات شهری از اهمیت حساس و قابل توجهی برخوردار است. این موضوع زمانی حساسیت فوق­العاده­ای پیدا می­کند که منطقه مورد بررسی در شرایط بحران قرار گرفته و عبور و مرور وسایل نقلیه و حمل و نقل­های اجتناب­ناپذیر در آن شرایط بسیار سخت و دشوار بوده و ممکن است خسارت­های مالی و جانی جبران ناپذیری را در پی داشته باشد. در این مقاله، یک مدل یکپارچه مکان­یابی مقاوم­سازی معرفی شده که با درنظر گرفتن شرایط بحران و ازکارافتادگی تسهیلات، مکان­های مناسب جهت استقرار بیمارستان‌های جدید را تعیین و به طور همزمان تعدادی از بیمارستان‌های موجود را جهت مقاوم‌سازی انتخاب می­نماید. با توجه به بودجه در دست، تقاضای نقاط مختلف و پیش­بینی­های صورت گرفته در مورد شرایط بحران، تصمیمات مکان­یابی بیمارستان‌های جدید و مقاوم­سازی بیمارستان‌های موجود به صورت بهینه تعیین می­شود. با توجه به اهمیت زمان در ارائه خدمات بیمارستانی اورژانسی، یکی از اهداف مدل، کمینه‌سازی بیشترین فاصله‌های تخصیص یافته است. هدف دیگر کمینه کردن تعداد تقاضاهایی است که در زمان بحران، به مکانی خارج از محدوده مورد نظر مانند شهرهای اطراف انتقال داده می­شوند. با توجه به دوهدفه بودن مدل، روش محدودیت اپسیلون و  نرم افزار GAMS 24.1.2  استفاده شده است. با توجه به امکان به‌کارگیری مدل در مسائل کاربردی و عملیاتی با ابعاد بزرگ و همچنین NP-Hard بودن مدل، الگوریتم فراابتکاری NSGA-II  به کار گرفته شده و کارایی رویکرد پیشنهادی مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار می‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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